At neutral or short lengths, minimal tension increased and maximal tension decreased with elasticity of the reins. Strain gauge transducers Hz measured minimal, maximal and mean rein tension, rate of loading and impulse. All rights reserved.
The experimental hypotheses were that tension in side reins 1 increases biphasically in each trot stride, 2 changes inversely with rein length, and 3 changes with elasticity of the reins.
Eight riding horses trotted in hand at consistent speed in a straight line wearing a bit and bridle and three types of side reins inelastic, stiff elastic, compliant elastic were evaluated in random order at long, neutral, and short lengths. Strain gauge transducers Hz measured minimal, maximal and mean rein tension, rate of loading and impulse.
Rein tension oscillated in a regular pattern with a peak during each diagonal stance phase. Within each rein type, minimal, maximal and mean tensions were higher with shorter reins.
At neutral or short lengths, minimal tension increased and maximal tension decreased with elasticity of the reins. Short, inelastic reins had the highest maximal tension and rate of loading. Since the tension variables respond differently to rein elasticity at different lengths, it is recommended that a set of variables representing different aspects of rein tension should be reported.
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Jones, Janelle M; Hynie, Michaela In three studies we examined the experience and management of conflict between different types of multiple identities. Participants described a conflict between pairs of role, relational, or social identities before rating the experience i. In general, the types of identities mattered for conflict management but not its experience: Magnitude and growth did not differ, however, stress was greater for role identity conflicts Study 3 only and participants endorsed the use of more realignment for role conflicts Study 2 and more retreat for relational conflicts Study 3 relative to other types of identity conflicts.